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Name of project: Is Copper the Best Metal Conductor?
Electrical resistance, denoted by R, is the total opposition to the passage of electric current, or the flow of electrons. Resistance depends on the material, area, and length of what the current is passing through, so the number varies depending on where resistance is measured. Resistance is measured in Ohms, represented by the symbol ?. A constant property of a given material is its resistivity, which is defined as how strongly a particular material resists current. Resistivity is denoted by the Greek letter rho, ?, in the units of Ohmmeters (?m).
Here’s a way to calculate the resistance of a given length of wire:
Where R is resistance in ohms, L is the length of the wire in meters, A is the cross sectional area of the wire in square meters, and ? is the electrical resistivity in ohmmeters.
Electrical conductivity is the inverse of resistivity: it’s the ability of a material to let current pass through. It is denoted by the Greek letter sigma, ?, and is measured in units of Siemens (S).
In this experiment you will be able to find the resistivity and conductivity of the materials you test by using Ohm’s law, which states that voltage is proportional to the product of current and resistance. The ammeter will help you measure the current that flows through the circuit, while the voltmeter will give you the voltage drop across the section you are testing.
Where V is the voltage, measured in volts, I is the current, measured in Amperes, and R is the resistance in ohms.
Problem: Observe the resistivity of different materials and material thicknesses and calculate electric conductivity.
Which material will be more resistive? Conductive?
Materials
 9V battery
 30cm of uninsulated copper wire (thinner gauge)
 30cm of uninsulated copper wire (thicker gauge)
 30cm of uninsulated iron wire (same gauge as the thinner gauge of copper wire)
 30cm of uninsulated iron wire (same gauge as the thicker gauge of copper wire)
 Any other wires you would like to test
 Wire cutters
 Ammeter
 Voltmeter
 Ruler
Procedure
 Attach the positive lead of the ammeter to the negative terminal of the 9V battery.
 Attach the negative lead of the ammeter to one end of one of the wires.
 Connect the other end of the wire to the positive terminal of the 9V battery.
 Use the voltmeter to measure voltage drops across different lengths of the wire (start with 2cm, then measure 3cm, 4cm, etc.). Be sure that positive lead of the voltmeter touches the beginning of the wire.
 Record the current (from the ammeter) and the voltage drop (from the voltmeter) for each length of each tested wire.
 Use Ohm’s law to determine the resistance and how length, gauge and material influences resistance.
 Plot your results for each type of wire. Plot wire length (in meters) on the xaxis and resistance (in ohms) on the yaxis.
 Calculate the resistivity using this formula:
Where R is resistance in Ohms ? is the resistivity in ohmmeters L is the length of the wire in meters and A is the cross sectional area of the wire, in meters. *you can look up the cross sectional area for differeng gauges of wire online.
 Use the resistivity, ?, to calculate the electrical conductivity, ?.
Results
Thicker wires will have lower resistances, but longer wires will have higher resistances. Copper has a lower resistivity and is a better conductor of electricity than iron.
Why?
The resistance of a wire increases with length. Because resistance is the property of a material that resists electron flow, it makes sense that the more material you have (longer length) the more resistance you will have. Electrical resistivity, ?, is a constant that is a property of the material, and it normalizes the resistance to the cross sectional area of the material the current is flowing through. The slope of the line on the plot of length vs. resistance is the electrical resistivity.
So is copper the best metal conductor? Copper is a better conductor than iron, which means current can flow easier (with less resistance) through copper. This is an inherent property of a material.
You can use Ohm’s law to calculate the resistance of the section you are measuring because the circuit is in series, which means the current will be the same everywhere in the circuit.
Find out more! Careers in sport science at present.
Name of project: Is a Denser Fruit Healthier?
Not all fruits and vegetables are alike. Although whole foods are a healthier choice there is a hierarchy of nutritional value between fruits and vegetables. As the saying goes, “an apple a day keeps the doctor away,” but we cannot live on apples alone. Although apples provide fiber and vitamin C they do not provide a sufficient amount of other nutrients. Potatoes, on the other hand, are higher in calories and carbohydrates, but contain only a fraction of the dietary fiber found in apples. Potatoes may make you feel full and give you energy but they do not provide an adequate amount of the essential nutrients. So does a fruit or vegetable’s density indicate its nutritional content? In this experiment students will measure the densities of fruits and vegetables, compare their nutrient values, and determine how density and nutrient content correlate.
Problem:
Does a fruit/vegetable’s density indicate its nutritional value? Students will measure the densities of various fruits and vegetables to determine if there is a relationship between density and nutritional value.
Materials
 Various fruits & vegetables
 Scale (g)
 5001000mL graduated cylinder (wide mouth)
 Water
Procedure:
 Choose at least 10 fruits and vegetables to sample.
 Using your background research create a chart of each sample’s nutritional value.
 Weigh each of your samples record in grams.
 Fill a 5001000mL graduated cylinder ½ way with water and record the volume.
 Place the sample into the graduated cylinder so that it is submerged in the water.
 Measure the volume of the water and submerged object.
 Repeat for each object.
 From the weight and displacement measurements calculate: volume, mass, and density.
 Compare the densities to the nutritional content from your table. Choose at least 5 nutrients to compare. Each nutrient can be compared individually since some fruits will contain nutrients not found in other foods. Create a graph comparing food density and nutrient content using an X,Y scatter plot.
Name of project: Are frequent Facebook Users Less or More Lonely?
Grade Level: 6th to 12th; Type: Social Science, Sociology
Objective:
This project explores whether people who are frequent users of Facebook feel less or more lonely than infrequent Facebookusers.
Research Question:

Do people who are frequent users of Facebook feel less or more lonely than infrequent Facebookusers?
Facebook has been hailed as a revolution in bringing people  especially people previously separated by time and distance  together. On the other hand, working on a computer is an inherently solitary activity.
Materials

UCLA Lonliness Scale

50 or more test subjects, half of whom log onto Facebook at least once a day, half of whom log onto Facebook less than once a day
Experimental Procedure:

Locate appropriate test subjects.

Administer UCLA Lonliness Scale.

Score scales.

Analyze and compare results for frequent and infrequent Facebook users.

Extension: Interview test subjects about the amount of time they spend socializing facetoface with other people and/or participating in clubs, sports, or other group activities. Determine if there is any correlation, either positive or negative, between Facebook use and facetoface socializing.
Do you have other ideas about science fair projects high school? Share your thoughts in the comments section below.